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Layers of Skin: How Many, Diagram, Model, Anatomy





Skin Although its thickness is not more than a few millimeters. The skin consists of three main layers, and it has an effective role in protecting the body from external influences, therefore; The skin must be taken care of and taken care of.

skin layers

The skin consists of three main layers: the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue. The following details the composition and components of the three layers of the skin:

The epidermis is the outer layer of the skin, and it consists of an epithelial tissue that in turn consists of squamous cells or keratinocytes that produce the protein keratin, the main component of the skin, hair, and nails. When keratinocytes close to the surface of the epidermis die, the living cells rise from the surface of the epidermis the lower part of the epidermis to the surface to replace it, and the epidermis contains Langerhans cells; They are specialized cells that have a role in providing information about foreign substances that enter the body to lymphocytes; This helps in developing an antigen suitable for it.

skin structure

The skin is distinguished into two types of skin:

The thicker skin that is found only on the palms of the palms and the soles of the feet, and its thickness reaches 1.5 mm, the thinner skin that covers the rest of the body, and the thinner skin that covers the eyelid, and the epidermal layer consists of five sub-layers arranged from top to bottom as follows :

  • The stratum corneum: a layer of flat-shaped cells, in which no nuclei can be seen.
  • Stratum lucidum: A thin, flat layer whose dead cells are found only in the thicker skin.
  • Stratum granulosum: It consists of rectangular cells.
  • Stratum spinosum: It consists of polyhedral cells, and becomes flattered in the area close to the stratum corneum.
  • The basal layer (stratum basale): It is the last layer of the epidermis, and it is composed of columnar cells.

Middle class

The dermis is the layer that lies under the epidermis, and makes up approximately 90% of the thickness of the skin, and is made up of a group of cells that perform various functions such as the fibroblast that produces connective tissue, and the extracellular tissue that separates the epidermis and the dermis The components of the dermis layer are:

  • Blood vessels: Its functions include transporting vitamin D from the skin to the body, providing the skin with oxygen and food, and ridding it of waste products.
  • Lymph vessels: supply the skin with the lymph that fights germs.
  • Sweat glands: transport sweat to the surface of the skin; It can evaporate and help cool the skin.
  • Sebaceous (Oil) Glands: They secrete natural oils that help the skin to resist water and germs.
  • Hair follicles: cavities that cover the hair root and provide nourishment to the hair.
  • Sensory receptors: The nerve endings that transmit sensations, such as pain and touch, from the skin to the brain.
  • Collagen: a solid protein produced by young fibroblasts, gives body tissues strength and a specific shape and has a role in stabilizing muscles and organs in their places.
  • Elastin: A protein produced by young fibroblasts that provide the skin with elasticity and the ability to stretch.

Subcutaneous tissue

This tissue is called the inner layer of the skin, the hypodermis, and it consists of soft connective tissue and fat, and it is thicker in the area of ​​​​the buttocks, the palms of the hand, and the soles of the feet. The inner layer of the skin consists of adipose tissue, which is a specialized connective tissue consisting of fat cells that work to store fats to insulate the body thermally. It also contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, nerves, and specialized white blood cells (mast cells). They are cells that have a role in the formation of blood vessels, wound healing, and protection of the body from pathogens.

The importance of the skin

The skin is of great importance to the human being, as it performs the following functions:

  • Protects the body from harmful external influences, such as sunlight, cold, toxic substances, and germs.
  • It is used in the early diagnosis of some medical conditions, as pallor of the face may be an indication of a decrease in the number of red blood cells, and yellowing of the skin may be an indication of hepatitis.
  • It regulates body temperature.
  • Helps to sense external stimuli, such as warmth, cold, pressure, itching, and pain; Which enables the body to perform the appropriate reaction, as happens when touching a hot stove, for example.
  • Storage of water, fats, and metabolic products.
  • It protects the body from dehydration.

what are the layers of the skin


Here are some tips to keep the skin healthy and healthy, as follows:

  • Protecting the skin from sunlight, which may increase the risk of skin cancer, and cause wrinkles and age spots, by using sunscreen, avoiding exposure to the sun in the afternoon, and wearing clothes that cover the body.
  • Stop smoking; Because it causes damage to the fibers that give the skin flexibility, such as collagen and elastin, and narrows small blood vessels; This deprives the skin of oxygen and food, causes wrinkles, and affects the skin so that the smoker appears much older than his age.
  • Treat the skin gently, by replacing hot water with warm water when showering, using a gentle soap, gently drying the skin, and using moisturizing creams.
  • Eat a healthy diet, focus on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and avoid unhealthy fats and refined carbohydrates.
  • Avoiding stress and treating its causes; Because of stress and stress cause skin problems such as acne, and allergies.
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