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Depression: Overview, Syndromes, Causes and Diagnosed



Depression overview

A major depressive disorder is defined as that feeling that negatively affects a person, his feelings, his way of thinking, and his actions through severe and long-term symptoms and signs, in addition to his influence on his normal functioning and daily functions, as this feeling of sadness exceeds For the few days that most people are exposed to, depression is the most common mental disorder, and despite the spread of this disorder, there are many undiagnosed patients who hesitate to make a decision to see a doctor or psychologist, and this can be due to many reasons; Some people may be ashamed of the idea of ​​diagnosing a mental disorder, and others may see his depression as a weakness in himself and not a real disease, and it is worth noting the existence and availability of many effective treatments that help treat depression and recover from it, and return to daily activities daily, Therefore, it is very important to see a doctor if you experience persistent symptoms of depression. This is because of the complications of this disorder on the injured: such as its negative impact on his lifestyle, the increase in his thinking about suicide, and the person’s health condition is diminished if he suffers from other disorders and chronic diseases.


Symptoms of depression

The symptoms and signs that appear on a person with depression vary according to many factors: age, gender, and cultural background of the person with depression. For example, younger children may have difficulty expressing feelings of depression, in which case the child finds more irritable or complains about some physical symptoms, as it may be noted that adolescents rebellion, retreat in school, or social isolation, or increase in dangerous actions, and it is worth noting That depression is more difficult to notice in older people; As it is usually believed that the symptoms that appear on them are due to old age or other health disorders, and in what comes a statement of some of the most prominent symptoms and signs of depression:

  • Reduced mood: People with depression usually feel sad, loss of hope and motivation, discomfort, ease of irritation, frustration, and anger, and sometimes people do not feel the events that occurred to them as a result of depression and describe this feeling tense and feelings of loss in general so that the decline continues Mood all the time or most of the time and that person may notice himself or those around him.
  • Losing interest: (Anhedonia) A person with depression does not feel any interest or pleasure while performing his work, daily activities, or hobbies that he used to enjoy in the past, and it may also lose interest in the people around him.
  • Changes in appetite and weight: the appetite and weight of a person with depression can change, whether by increasing or decreasing; The effect of depression may be to increase the patient’s appetite and increase his intake of certain foods, such as prepared foods and carbohydrates, or that the appetite decrease and he becomes compelled to force himself to eat food.
  • Sleep changes: Depression usually results in sleep disturbances, such as if the person experiences difficulties sleeping, or wakes up early in the day, or suffers from insomnia, or excessive sleep, and the person with depression rarely feels comfortable after sleeping in both The two cases.
  • Increased or sluggish movement: The person may show some symptoms of irritation, such as increased hand movement, increased pace, boredom, and restlessness, or the exact opposite of the symptoms of slow and lethargy, such as slow movement, thinking, and speaking.
  • Feeling insignificant: (Worthlessness) or feeling exaggerated guilt towards some things that he did or did not do, as a person with depression usually feels a failure, inferiority, or that he is an unqualified or worthless person.
  • Poor concentration: A person with depression may have difficulty thinking, focusing, and making decisions, in addition to the ease of dispersion and sometimes loss of memory.
  • Thinking of death or suicide: It may be that the Suicidal Ideation of the person suffering merely feels a loss of the value of life, but it may be severe in some cases when the person is seriously thinking about ending his life.

Causes of depression

There are many common theories to explain what causes depression, and perhaps the most common ones are chemicals and chemical reactions taking place in the brain, but there are millions or billions of chemicals in the body that can be responsible for a person’s mood, outlook, and related issues. Many other factors may be biological or external influences that may have a role in the likelihood of people suffering from depression, and although there is still no specific main cause known to the injury, we mention here that some of the factors that may be It have a role in the development of depression:

  • Biological differences: It is believed that people with depression can have physical differences in the shape of the brain.
  • Brain chemistry: In the brain, there are chemicals called neurotransmitters, which studies have shown have important functions and effects in controlling people’s moods, and hence the feeling of depression and how to treat it. Neurotransmitters that play a role in this include Serotonin and Dopamine Norepinephrine.
  • Hormones: The imbalance of some hormones may affect stimulating or causing depression; This imbalance may occur during pregnancy, due to problems in the thyroid gland, in the postpartum period, or when menopause is reached.
  • Heredity: Depression is often more common in people who have other family members who have it, and scientists are trying to find the genes that cause depression.
  • Other life factors: such as exposure to trauma, abuse, loss of loved ones, exposure to financial problems, chronic diseases such as cancer, stroke, heart disease, or psychological disorders such as anxiety and eating disorders In addition to the nature of the character, Such as lack of self-confidence or weak personality.

Diagnosis of depression

Here we mention some of the criteria that are often used to diagnose depression:

  • The history of symptoms of depression: where a person is asked about the psychological and personal symptoms he suffers from accurately, and whether he has suffered from any changes during the last period of his life, which may be attributed to the emergence of these symptoms, and it should be noted that the diagnosis of depression depends mainly on The symptoms mentioned in the previous paragraph; Where the diagnosis is made if the sufferer suffers from five or more of the above-mentioned symptoms daily for two consecutive weeks, and in addition to that both decreased mood and loss of interest must be among these symptoms, and that the symptoms he suffers affect the course of his daily life.
  • The family history of depression: Since depression may be linked to genetic factors, a person is usually asked about the existence of any family history of depression.
  • Tests and tests to rule out other diseases and disorders: the diagnosis of depression does not depend on specific laboratory analyzes; There is no blood test or test that can determine whether or not a person suffers from depression, but the doctor may recommend some tests to rule out certain diseases and health conditions that can cause symptoms similar to sadness and depression, such as thyroid function tests; As symptoms of sadness and mood retreat can be caused by person hypothyroidism.

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