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Migraine: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment



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Migraine symptoms

Severe head pain concentrated on one side of the head is the main symptom of migraine, migraine, or shivering, which often worsens with movement, and limits the patient’s ability to carry out daily activities. It should be noted that migraine attacks are divided into four stages: Each stage has a set of possible symptoms, but the patient does not necessarily have to go through all these stages or suffer from all the symptoms of each stage, and it is also possible that some symptoms appear during one stage and continue during the other stages, and in this context, it is indicated that the symptoms The feelings that the victim feels may differ from one attack to another, and the following is a detail of the stages of migraine and the most important symptoms that may accompany each stage:

Prodrome stage symptoms

The prodromal phase begins a day or two before a migraine occurs, and may last for several hours or several days; During this stage, the injured person may feel some warning symptoms indicating the onset of a migraine attack, and it is worth remembering that the symptoms of the prodrome stage differ from one patient to another, in addition to the fact that some patients do not go through this stage from the ground up. These symptoms include: mood changes; The patient may suffer from depression or irritability, and this may be accompanied by difficulty concentrating, constipation or diarrhea, fatigue, general fatigue, and muscle stiffness; Specifically, the muscles of the shoulders and neck, increased thirst, insomnia, sensitivity to light and sound. It is worth noting that frequent yawning, craving for some types of foods, and frequent urination are symptoms characteristic of this stage. It should be noted the need to avoid migraine triggers as much as possible and practice meditation and relaxation techniques and take medications. As prescribed by the doctor, all of these procedures contribute to alleviating the severity of a migraine attack and sometimes may prevent its occurrence, and it is worth stating that, according to what was published by the American Journal of Medicine in 2018, 60% of people with migraines go through the prodromal stage.

Symptoms of the aura stage

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, about a third of people with migraines can predict the occurrence of headaches. This is because it is usually preceded by the phase of the aura, aura, or aura; During this stage, the patient may feel some temporary and pre-migraine warning symptoms, and these symptoms often develop within five minutes and last for about an hour, and may be followed by a slight headache in some sufferers, and among the most prominent warning symptoms that may accompany the aura stage we mention what Come:

  • Dizziness and loss of balance.
  • Difficulty speaking.
  • A pins-and-needles numbness or tingling sensation that usually begins in one hand and then extends up the arm, and then moves to the face, lips, and tongue.
  •   Loss of consciousness, but it should be noted that this symptom is rare.
  • visual disturbances; The patient may go through periods in which he loses his vision and others feel blurred, in addition to the possibility of bright and twinkling lights that obstruct vision, geometric lines, or some blind spots.

Symptoms of the seizure phase

A migraine attack usually begins gradually, and then increases in intensity, and this stage may last for a period ranging from several hours to several days. It is a throbbing or throbbing pain that starts above the eye and usually affects one side of the head, but it may move to the other side and may affect the entire head, and may affect the neck and lower part of the face, and it may get worse during movement or doing daily activities or during coughing or Sneezing, in addition to feeling a headache, in addition to the possibility of suffering from other symptoms besides the symptoms mentioned previously, and among these symptoms, we mention the following:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting.
  • constipation or diarrhea;
  • Fluid retention in the body.
  • hot flashes; Chills.
  • Runny or stuffy nose.
  • confusion.
  • dizziness;
  • Vertigo.
  • Drought.
  • neck pain;
  • Depression.
  • anxiety.
  • feeling afraid
  • High sensitivity to light, sounds, or smells.

Post-attack symptoms

After the seizure stage, which is the most difficult and most severe stage among the migraine stages, the patient may pass through the final stage known as the post-attack stage.

  • Fatigue.
  • Mood changes. You may feel anxious, sad, or cheerful.
  • muscle pain;
  • dizziness or lightheadedness;
  • difficulty concentrating
  • Feeling of pain when touching the scalp.
  • Neck stiffness.

Symptoms that warrant immediate medical intervention

Many cases of migraine are not diagnosed and therefore not treated properly, and therefore it is advised for people with headache attacks from time to time, especially those who show symptoms or signs of those previously mentioned in writing and refer to the specialist doctor as soon as possible to determine The underlying cause, and as for those diagnosed with the sister, some symptoms may require a doctor or emergency visit, including cases of non-improvement of symptoms after using the treatment prescribed by the doctor, or in the event of new symptoms or different patterns of migraine, or a severe attack that can be described That it is the worst attack among the attacks that preceded it, or if the attack appears suddenly, and other cases that require a doctor’s review are the following:

  • Headache accompanied by the following symptoms:
  • Convulsive fits.
  • fever.
  • double vision
  • Speech impairment.
  • Neck stiffness.
  • Headaches are caused by a head injury, especially if they get worse over time.
  • A chronic headache that worsens with coughing, sudden movement, or straining.
  • Feeling of a new headache in people over 50 years old.
  • fainting.

Types of migraines

Migraines are classified, based on the presence or absence of sensory disturbances that precede or accompany headache attacks, into two main types, the first type is known as migraine with aura, and the second type is migraine without aura. In some detail:

Migraine with aura

   Patients who have migraines with aura have similar symptoms to those mentioned earlier in the aura phase. So that these symptoms serve as warning signs that a migraine attack is coming soon.

Migraine without aura

   Migraines without aura are more common than other types of migraines. Where migraine sufferers are exposed to the attack without being preceded by any sensory disturbances that warn of its coming.

Chronic migraine

   According to the International Headache Society, migraines are chronic if the headache lasts for more than 15 days during one month over three months without excessive use of medications; It includes at least 8 migraine attacks, and it is noteworthy that a study was published in the Journal of Cephalgia to determine the global prevalence of chronic migraine in 2010 AD, where studies found that its prevalence was 0.7%.

Other species

There are other types of migraine headaches associated with a specific trigger or syndrome, which are described below:

  • Menstrual migraine: Episodes of this type of migraine are associated with the menstrual cycle in women.
  • Hemiplegic migraine: The sufferer of this type of migraine feels weakness on one side of the body for a temporary period.
  • Abdominal migraine: This type of migraine often affects children under the age of 14, and it is defined as a syndrome that links migraine attacks to a disorder of the functions of the abdomen and intestines.
  • Migraine with cerebral aura: This type of migraine is rare. Where infection causes severe neurological symptoms, such as; Impact on the ability to speak.

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